• determination of the specific surface area by the air permeability method (gas pycnometer, Blaine air permeability apparatus) and by gas sorption analysis (mainly BET technique),
• analysis of pore structures by mercury intrusion porosimetry,
• analysis of phase composition by means of thermal analysis (TGA/DSC),
• macroscopic observation of pore structure and texture of hardened composites by optical microscopy,
• pH measurement.